• When other tests cannot find the underlying cause of infertility, the doctor needs to look directly into patient’s reproductive organs.
  • Once patient completes all the basic infertility evaluation, doctor may suggest to undergo laparoscopy.
  • It is a diagnostic as well as a therapeutic surgical procedure.
  • Laparoscopy is advised to diagnose and treat infertility problems.
What is Laparoscopy?
  • Laparoscopy is a surgical and diagnostic procedure to check a woman’s reproductive system.
  • A laparoscope is inserted into the abdomen through a small incision. The laparoscope has a high-resolution camera at the front, which sends images to a video monitor.
  • A surgeon can visualize uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries to determine the causes of infertility.
  • Laparoscopy is less painful and needs minimal incision. With fast recovery, it requires a short hospital stay. It helps in both the diagnosis and treatment of infertility issues.
  • It is also called keyhole surgery or Band-Aid surgery.
Laparoscopy for Infertility
  • Laparoscopy for infertility is generally advised when women have unexplained infertility, that is when all other fertility test results are normal.
  • Laparoscopy can help the doctor to determine the underlying cause of infertility, such as:
    • Blocked fallopian tubes, Hydro salpinx
    • Scar tissue build-up, Adhesions
    • Endometriosis
    • Fibroid, Ovarian cyst
    • Other anatomical abnormalities of the reproductive system
  • Using laparoscopy doctors not only diagnose but also remove the underlying anomaly causing infertility, giving a chance for natural conception.
  • In case of any suspicious growth, a biopsy can be taken during laparoscopy.
  • Laparoscopy can be used to remove scar tissue or a fibroid and treat conditions like endometriosis or hydrosalpinx.
  • Laparoscopy, by helping in the diagnosis and treatment of these problems increases the chances of pregnancy.
Treatment of endometriosis –
  • In endometriosis, endometrial tissue grows outside the uterine cavity instead of lining it.
  • This causes severe pain, heavy menstrual bleeding and also infertility.
  • Endometriosis causes inflammation of fallopian tubes, scarring, or even blockage.
  • Laparoscopy can resolve this issue by removing the lesion caused by endometriosis.
Ovarian cystectomy –
  • These are the fluid-filled sacs that sometimes cause extreme pain and discomfort.
  • When removal of the cyst is needed, laparoscopy is the best option.
Myomectomy –
  • It is the removal of fibroids from the uterus.
  • These fibroids cause pelvic pain, heavy menstruation, and distortion of uterine cavity making it difficult to conceive.
  • Myomectomy can be done successfully by laparoscopy with minimal incision.
Lysis of uterine adhesions –
  • It is a procedure of removal of adhesions from the uterus.
  • Laparoscopic adhesionolysis reduces the risk of any future adhesions, thus increases the chances of fertility.
  • Laparoscopic surgery is an excellent option for women facing infertility issues.
  • laparoscopy avoids large open wounds and has faster recovery.

Laparoscopy Procedure:

  • Laparoscopy is a simple procedure performed under general anesthesia.
  • After giving a general anesthesia surgeon will insert a laparoscope into the abdomen to inject gas that dilates distened abdomen.
  • This makes it easier to view all the organs and structures and the doctor will examine the structures.
  • The  further steps depend on the diagnosis. If there is an anomaly that needs surgery, a third incision is made to perform surgery.
  • After completion of the procedure surgeon will remove the instruments and stitch the incision areas.
  • Patient will be kept under observation for a few hours and will be sent home.
  • Slight pain and discomfort will be seen after surgery.
  • Patient may also experience pain in the shoulders and abdomen as the injected gas starts to absorb.
Side effects:
  • 1% to 2% of women may develop postoperative complications such as:
    • bladder infection
    • adhesions
    • infection of the incision site
    • hematomas in the abdominal wall.
    • Report to doctor during any such side effects.
Recovery –
  • Post-surgery, patient will be under observation to see if there are any complications.
  • Depending on your physical condition, you will be sent home after a day.
  • When compared to other traditional surgeries, the recovery time of laparoscopy is much shorter.
  • Patient will be given medication to relieve pain and also Antibiotic to prevent post-operative infection. Patient can begin normal activities within 2to3 days.
  • laparoscopy is a great tool that can treat many gynecological problems, including infertility.
  • Laparoscopy is useful in evaluating and treating the causes of infertility.
  • Laparoscopy may helpful to increase the chances of Conception.

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